Win K-Cell therapy

the fourth alternative treatment (Surgery, Radiation and Chemotherapy) in cancer therapeutic

Immune cell therapy or call “ Win K-Cell therapy” could be considered as the cell for treatment which is similar to regenerative medicine for the skin and cartilage cultured and stem cell transplantation. Although therapies using immune cells are composed of a variety of methods, the principle of this therapy is to bring the Cell Medicine Technology to removes foreign cells such as cancer cells and cells infected by viruses by immune cell injection increase immunity to the patient (immune cell will be cultured outside the patient’s body). The unique feature of immune cell therapy which does not contain a negative effect on the body, moreover there are fewer side effects because the cells using a patient's own cells (autologous cells) and therefore do not require treatment in hospital. In cancer treatment, it is used to treat immune cell therapy performed in the system (systemic treatment) to maintain the better quality of life. Nowadays, there is a serious ongoing research and development to improve the efficacy and safety of this treatment.

In general, cancer treatment

Cancer is a difficult disease to treat if not detected early and treated promptly. The standard treatment for curing cancer patients consists of three main ways; Surgery, Radiation and Chemotherapy. In addition, there is hormone therapy which is used for some cancer types. We can see the progression of each treatment but its effectiveness remains the same if it is used only one way. Therefore, combination of treatment is used to increase the effectiveness of the cancer therapeutic in the present. For example, the curing plan for removing the cancer is surgery. However, surgery cannot remove all the cancer out. Therefore, radiation is the second step to eradicate the cancer which still remains in the body. The metastatic cancer stage cannot be cured by surgery and irradiation; the only way for curing is chemotherapy. However, the chemotherapy is the use of strong medication and there are side effects of the drug. The development of a new drug or method that produces fewer side effects and the chemotherapy replacement are required for the quality of life in the future. Therefore, this immune cell therapy was invented and developed by focusing on the mechanism of cellular immune response against cancer cells and combined the progression of Immunology, Molecular Biology and Cell engineering technique together.

What is immune cell? Should it be the fourth alternative treatment for cancer?

In natural, the human’s body has an immune system to detect and against diseases or virus which attack into the cells. The immune system will destroy invaders and drive them out of the body. White blood cells and immune cells play the important role in this function. When the immune system is out of balance, resulting in an increase in pathogens and cancer cells in the body. Immune cell therapy as a treatment to stimulate the immune cells has the power to balance the body's immune system in eliminating or stopping the growth of cancer cells.

The balance between immunity and cancer cells

When mutation occurs in the cells resulting in cancer, in general these mutated cells will be eradicated by immune system. When cancer cells are stronger than normal cells by many factors, cancer will grow and be dominant. The immune system in cancer cells will be destroyed leading to the positive factor for cancer cell development.
When cancer cells are eliminated by surgery or radiation, the immune system will be recovered. Nevertheless, cancer recurrence can be occurred because cancer cells cannot be removed all.
Chemotherapy can reduce the strength of cancer cells in short term. It is difficult to eliminate cancer cells permanently by this therapy. Moreover, chemotherapy will stop bone marrow function leading to the immunity damage which is the risky for infection. Even the chemotherapy can reduce the size of cancer cells; it cannot increase the immune system for protecting the cancer recurrence.
Cancer cells grow to the size obviously because cancer cells are stronger than immune system. Even though Immuno-Cell therapy can stop the growth of cancer cells, it cannot reduce the size of these cancer cells in short term without rebooting immune system.
Win K-Cell therapy after surgery or other treatments is effective.

Currently, medical information have found that when white blood cell type “mononuclear cells” from the cancer patients are taken separately cultured and stimulated with cytokine resulting in the ability in destroying cancer cells. These stimulated white blood cells are called cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK). CIK is one of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte which has CD3+ and CD 56+ expression which can destroy the target cells by using “non major histocompatibility complex”. When inject the CIK back into the patients ‘body, it can destroy cancer cells in the patients ‘body reducing cancer recurrence. This treatment was used for the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and leukemia by both adjuvant treatment and relief. This treatment increases the patients’ chances of survival rate.

There are several studies in many countries revealed the correlation between carcinogenesis and immune response. 905 patients who got Immunosuppression after taking organ transplantation such as heart and lung in 1989-2004, 102 patients had cancer cells. The rate which these patients got cancer was 7.1 times higher than normal population. Cancer cells which were found are leukemias and lymphomas (26.2 times higher than normal population) head and neck cancer (21 times higher) and lung cancer (9.3 times).

(Roithmaier S, Haydon AM, Loi S, et al. Incidence of malignancies in heart and/or lung transplant recipients: a single-institution experience. J Heart Lung Transplant 2007;26:845-849. [CrossRef][ISI][Medline] )

Mechanism of CIK’s action

Cancer treatment with Adoptive cell immunotherapy ( Win K-Cell ) in the present is more popular. For destroying cancer cells by using immune cell-base cancer therapy, Immune cells will be moved out of the body and then cultured and after that stimulated (ex vivo). These immune cells are dendritic cell, lymphokine-activated killer cells, CIK (Cytokine induced killer cells). However, CIK has more advantage than other cells as below:
  1. It can be produced by mononuclear white blood cells released from the body through the veins of the patient. Moreover, it is easy to proliferate in vitro.
  2. CIK has a potential in destroying cancer cells, for example; hepatocellular carcinoma, leukemia, renal cancer gastric cancer, Nasopharynx cancer, Cholangiocarcinoma, Lymphoma, Melanoma, Lung cancer, Glioma, Pancreatic cancer.
  3. The effect of cancer cells is MHC-unrestricted.
  4. CIK is a final effector in attacking cancer cells without changing form to other cells.
  5. By in vivo study, CIK injection into the body has low toxicity. There is no graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) , it might because CIK can produce Interferon-g . This was proved by blocking Interferon-g synthesis and inject into the body resulting in severe GVHD .
CIK cells are a type of white blood mononuclear cells obtained from peripheral vein or the spleen of the test animals. After that it will be cultured outside the body and stimulated by interferon-g, CD3-antibody and interleukin-2. CIK will express the marker of natural killer (NK cells) together with T cells. It expresses receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) and unrestricted with MHC. The mechanism in destroying cancer cells of CIK is to detect NKG2D ligand which is one of stress-associated ligands.
This ligand expresses in many type of cancer cells because these cells were stressed by tumor microenvironment which is not proper for the growth of normal cells. Therefore CIK has the effect on many types of cancer, not specific cancer. CIK is non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted, depending on contacting between CIK and cancer cells. After that CIK will produce perforin to destroy cancer cells ‘membrane. There is not necessary to use eFas in stimulating perforin production. Moreover, CIK can produce cytokines such as IFN-g, RANTES, MIP1a and MIP1b. These cytokine will work with IFN-g in destroying cancer cells in the same mechanism as T helper1 T cell.

• The steps in the production of Win K-Cell ( immune cells) is to take the patient's blood outside the body to stimulate and increase the number of cells and injected back into the body to enhance the immune of the patient.

The production step of Win K-cell

  1. Collect 30-50 ml blood from intravenous of the patients
  2. Select the cell centrifugation only the mono-nuclear cells
  3. Immune cells culture to proliferate and enhance the efficiency in destroying cancer cells by using cytokine. This step will take 2-3 weeks.
  4. Contaminant final checking such as bacteria fungi and toxic reagents
  5. Inject back into the patients’ intravenous. In the form of a solution .The average cell volume is 1x109 cells.

The advantage of treatment with Win K-cell

  1. Win K-Cell can be treated together with surgery method for destroying the left of cancer cells in the patients’ body.
  2. Win K-Cell can be treated with chemotherapy for destroying cancer cells.
  3. Win K-Cell can be treated with other therapies because there is no side effect by this therapy.
  4. Reduce cancer recurrence and expand the duration for recurrence compare to other therapies.
  5. Strengthen the immune system in the body of patients treated with the drug or chemical to the body, which suppresses immune system. This can reduce infection rates.
  6. Win K-Cell is good for cancers which cannot be treated by surgery because of the position of cancer cells or the metastatic cells.
  7. The patients don’t need to stay in hospital because it is intravenous injection. It can reduce the cost of paying for patients.