Immuno Activity or call “ NK Activity” and “ Natural Cytotoxicity”
Life would be better if we knew the future. The future, we’ll never know, and our body wasn’t designed to anticipate all future possibilities.
Prevent “cancer” using technology that can accurately check for the risk of cancer. By analyzing your “Natural Cytotoxicity,” natural killer cells within your body that have the ability to detect whether other cells have undergone tumor transformation and destroy those cancer cell. This technology requires highly skilled researchers.
With advanced biotechnology, we are proud to collaborate in “cell therapy” research with a team of renowned researchers from Japan. With our innovative method, we can effectively increase the level of natural cytotoxicity in people who have a high risk of cancer. The graph below shows over 500 patients with different types of cancer who have enrolled in the Immuno Booster Program by CIK Cells.
Check first – Know first – Prevent first – For your health, in the future, that you can control.
“We are ready to give, in full detail, careful consultation and step by step treatment procedures for our Immuno Booster Program.
From the graph, the majority of patients have pancreatic cancer, followed by patients with lung cancer, and patients with Colon and liver cancer, respectively.
Immuno Booster Program is a new hope as the fourth alternative method for cancer treatment apart from the 3 standard treatments which are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. It is commonly known that patients who receive these traditional cancer treatments tend to have the side effects such as immune system damage and weakening of normal and healthy cells, susceptibility to infection, hair loss, extreme discomfort when receiving chemotherapy, and most importantly, sometimes, the treatments cannot eliminate all the cancer cells which will result in the cancer cells returning and spreading throughout the body and leading eventually to death. Therefore, the use of immunotherapy by natural killer cells should be applied along with conventional treatments.
The graph shows the relationship between cancer occurrence and level of Natural Cytotoxicity.
From the graph, it is found that people who have high risk of cancer exhibit lower levels of natural cytotoxic activity than people who have low risk which lead to higher chance of cancer for people in the high risk group than the low risk group.
Natural cytotoxic activity interpretation can be divided as below list;
- Low level indicates that the effectiveness of the immune cells in respond to tumor or infected cells is low. The causes of reducing natural cytotoxic activity in blood are
- Patient and/or people who have a family member with cancer e.g. lung cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, cervical cancer and ovarian cancer.
- Inappropriate lifestyle e.g. heavy smoking, sleep deprivation or sleep less than 7 hours/day, severe stress and overweight.
- Malnutrition results from intake diet in the wrong proportion e.g. lacking consume fruits, vegetables or soy proteins.
- Patient is receiving drugs such as immunosuppressant or chemotherapy.
- Patient after surgery.
- Patient who has some disease e.g. perforin deficiency, NEMO mutation.
- Normal level indicates that your immune cells are in the normal health status.
- High level indicates that your immune cells look like more active. This level indicates that you may in healthy stage from maximal exercise. However, it may be interpreted as infectious state or have the risk developing to age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.
How to behave after detecting the lower of NK Cell Count and NK Activity
- Change your life style
- Take foods that affect NK Cell include foods containing beta carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E , dietary mushrooms, including food supplements that affect the immune system.
- Immuno Therapy by NK Cell to activate NK cell activity in our body
Which group of people that should check up “ NK Activity Testing “ as following;
- People who have a family history or relatives with cancer.
- People who are frequently infected which reflect immune deficiency.
- People who have chronic diseases such as liver and kidney diseases, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.
- People who have chronic hepatitis virus infection.
- People with ongoing cancer treatment, or who have completed cancer treatment.
- People who have little time for rest, a busy life styles, poor health issues, and drink alcohol and smoke.
DETAILS FOR DOCTORNatural Cytotoxic Activity
Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes that are important effectors of the innate immune system with a critical role in early host defense against invading pathogens and tumor transformed.
Circulating NK cells comprise 10–15% of all peripheral blood lymphocytes. Human NK cells are defined phenotypically as their lack of T-cell markers and the expression of CD56 (CD3-/CD56+). NK cells can divide into 2 subset based on the density of their surface expression of CD56. The CD56bright subset, comprising 10 percent of circulating NK cells in peripheral blood, is more proliferative and produces more cytokines e.g. IFN-γ, TNF-α, TNF-β. Whereas, CD56dim subset comprises 90 percent and plays strongly cytotoxicity
The functions of NK cells are regulated by the balance between the inhibitory and activating receptors (Figure 1).
- Inhibitory receptors which bind major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules for inhibitory in response to these cells.
- Activating receptors which bind ligands on tumors and virus-infected cells. NK cells provide a defense mechanism to eliminate cells with abnormal MHC class I expression e.g. tumor cells and viral infected cells.
The main mechanisms of NK cells which use to eliminate tumor transformed and infected cells as cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. The most cytotoxicity of NK cells is mediated by perforin and granzyme. However, they can also use Fas ligand (FasL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathways. In addition, NK cells mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity via CD16. NK cells also damage the target cells by secreting Th1-type cytokines or chemokines.
Analysis of NK cell function, also known as Natural cytotoxic activity, NK activity and NK cytotoxicity, is importance for monitoring disease progression and screening in some disease such as the patient with perforin deficiency and/or NEMO mutation; these patient can have normal NK cell number but have defective in NK cytotoxicity.
In addition, Kazue Imai et al indicated that medium and high NK cytotoxic activity of peripheral-blood lymphocytes is associated with reduced cancer risk, whereas low activity is associated with increased cancer risk (Figure 2).
Figure 2 Incidence rate of cancer by NK cytotoxic activity among men and women.
Moreover, Md. Z. Dewan et al. investigated the NK activity of breast cancer patients. They found that NK activity from breast cancer patients were substantially lower than from healthy individuals. HER2-negative breast cancer patients had lower natural killer activity as compared with HER2-positive patients (Figure 3).
Figure 3 NK activity in breast cancer patients.
Alessandra Beano et al also study the correlation between overall NK function and trastuzumab's clinical activity. They found that higher NK values are significantly correlated with longer time to tumor progression (Figure 4).
Figure 4 Time to tumor progression is correlated with the NK activity
The gold standard for the detection of NK activity is the 51Chromium (51Cr) release assay. However, the disadvantage of the assay is radioactivity and spontaneous leakage of the 51Cr label in certain cell types. To overcome these problems, several novel non-radioactive assays have been established such as Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay (based on ELISA assay), Flow cytometric assay and Calcein-AM cytotoxicity assay.
However, the correlation of LDH activity assay is poor when compares with 51Cr release assay (the correlation value of LDH assay is less than 0.60) whereas the correlation value of flow cytometric assay and calcein-AM cytotoxicity assay is 0.85 and 0.96, respectively (Figure 5).
(Right = Calcein-AM assay, Left = Flow cytometry)
Calcein-AM cytotoxicity assays using the acetoxymethyl ester of calcein (calcein-AM) for the evaluation of NK activity. Labeling target cells with calcein-AM has no effect on the formation of effect-target conjugates. The NK activity based on the evaluation of calcein-AM released in the supernatant (Figure 6).
Figure 6 The calcein-AM of target cells release in the supernatant after 4 hours.
The calcein-AM cytotoxicity assay seem to be very good assay for NK activity evaluation because it is sensitive, easy, safe and high correlation to 51Cr release assay.
** Please click download “ Manual collection of specimens for NK Activity “